Evolution of Sports Medicine and Larger objective
Sports Medicine is concerned with care and potential performance of the players it requires a comprehensive approach. Credit of establishing principles of care was given to Herodicus of Selymbria at the time of Socrates and Claudius Galen in 131 AD. They emphasized training diet, massage and a medical approach to athletics. Galen’s contribution to scientific medicine is monumental. He is placed the clinical instructions of Hippocrates on a sound experimental basis for 1500 years his work dominated medical knowledge. He was a true sports medicine practitioner because of which sometimes he is called as father of sports medicine. Today, sports medicine has evolved into a respected discipline with dedicated Association, Colleges, Institutes and literature in most countries.
Causes led to development of sports medicine
Modern man seems obsessed by Sports, both as spectator and participant around 25 to 30% of human beings all around the world regularly compete in sports activities. This is not surprising the health benefits of regular exercises are well documented by decreasing coronary artery diseases high blood pressure and non-insulin dependent diabetes, and all responsible medical practitioners promote it as the easiest way to preserve health
There is concern that till now human beings throughout the world are not taking part in physical activities to satisfactory level. In developing countries people’s lack of exercise together with tobacco and alcohol consumption seems likely to create a health catastrophe in the near future.
In ancient times, various kinds of Sporting events where being organized by kings and emperors with the purpose of entertaining general public. Baron Pierre de Coubertin, who is regarded as father of modern Olympics said that the Olympic movement tends to bring together in a radiant union of all qualities which guide mankind to perfection this statement appears to be idealistic, it is not unreasonable you want to use sports activity to improve the human lot and make it more bearable for all.
Evolution of organized Sporting activities
Organized Sporting activities or competitions can be shown to have 3 major milestones
- Ancient calendar with Egyptian Chinese Indian and Islamic events
- Olympic games the Greco-Roman tradition with the ancient games and the modern games. Olympic competition introduced idealism dedicated to the glory of Zeus, the mind body and spirit of man with a celebration of mind and body and the need to rise about politics. Sport function to elevate man to a plane of idealistic behavior about their biological needs
- Great English public schools recognized the civilizing influence of organized Sports. It served to submit the energies of their school pupils into enterprises of cooperation and heroism on the football field and the water rowing. The same school boys went up to the university and out to the colonies. All schools and Universities eventually established athletic events as an important part of their curriculum.
Today Sporting events have recognized a lot of consideration. Not only this, sport will play a crucial part in future also. The scientific endeavors of this century have been directed at military conquest, wealth accumulation and medicine. All researches has led do biomedical advances. Field of sports medicine will showcase the achievements of medical science. The health problems of the world are currently respiratory infections, diarrhea, depression and heart diseases. The risk factors for these problems or no food, no water, no sanitation, no exercise, no safe sex, too much tobacco use and high blood pressure.
It has been predicted by the experts that in the near future, main health problems will be heart disease, depression, road accidents and lung diseases, all of which will be attributed to occupation, alcohol and tobacco use. Many of these problems can be related to destruction of our environment in an important way.
Today, there are basically two classes of country namely developed and developing. Developed countries are characterized by wealthy western style democracy existing on national debts, while developing countries have widening wealth gap and dependent on World Bank. The citizens of these countries fall into 4 groups namely
a cannot stop- which includes super achievers
b can cope- which includes solid citizens, who uphold the system and pay tax,
c would not cope- which consists of criminal groups and
d cannot cope- which consists of mentally and physically handicapped people who need help.
Among these group, persons belonging to cannot stop will plan while persons belonging to group can cope will carry out and answers to this problem.
It has become Paramount important for human beings to protect their environment otherwise our children will be playing sport in a planetary junkyard. Sport activities may help us. It can modify various risk factors by allowing and encouraging us to reduce alcohol and tobacco use and to avoid physical inactivity. The benefits of sports activities may be taken further to protect the environment. if the purpose of sports activities is to enhance our health then it is irrational and dangerous to exercise in a polluted environment, as environment is the main determinants of our health including food, water and clean air.
Urban players are found to inhale above average levels of air pollutants which bypass the nose filter within open mouth. These pollutants are either a reducing or oxidant form of smog. The reducing forms namely carbon fuels consist of smoke particulate Sulphur dioxide or trioxide and may cause bronchospasm with the respiratory infection viral myocarditis especially in children in big cities. The oxidant forms of carbon monoxide which can be lethal in the elderly and possible the young players in competition, swimming times are slower when levels exceed 30 parts per mission hydrocarbons, ozone and nitrogen oxides.
Various skaters have developed chemical pneumonitis from the nitrogen oxides given off by propane fuel propelled resurfacing machines. Swimmers can have exposure dependent chloroform blood levels. Team doctors have been needed to monitor and advise all levels. It is necessary to organize or stage athletic events in those Cities and countries which have a commitment to safe and clean environment. The culture of sport may need to develop a new creed, namely protect my body and my environment. There should be an awareness of the need of ecological compatibility of Athletic performance with the environment in which the event is being held, so that the Sporting events can be organized to serve greater human needs. It is necessary to use sports medicine to showcase the advancement of Medical Science. World records should be broken by improved training techniques, tactics, equipment and nutrition. To avoid the adverse effects of pollutants on performance, athletic machines should be trained in our environment cocoons. Peripheral brains should be implanted to alter personality and psychological barriers and to enhance neuromuscular and cardio respiratory performance. Design engineer should be given the task of improving Sporting equipment and facilities with which the players will be able to perform better and possibilities of them getting injured will lower down considerably.
In reality our philosophical acceptance of these things will depend on whether we consider that such ventures improve the human lot or not.
Today, sports medicine has attained and important and recognizable place in world and is facing and new millennium with great expectations and is being on an ambitious scientific foundation.
Concept of sports medicine
Experts have divided medicine into various Specialists which is done on basis of area of body involved or according to patients age for instance specialist of eye diseases are known as ophthalmology, specialist of disease relating to ear nose and throat are called ENT etc. Specialty is concerned with different age groups including Pediatrics dealing with children and their complaints and geriatrics solely with the conditions affecting the elder person. This kind of categorization can be done to further extent namely in operative and non-operative specialty depending on the organ involved namely neurosurgery, plastic surgery, cardiac surgery etc there are also pure service disciplines with the medicine namely anesthetics, clinical neuropsychology, clinical chemistry etc.
With the development of Medical Science there is tendency towards smaller subdivisions within each specialty, surgery is good example sub specialization into the surgery of different organs and tissues has reached such a stage that little is left to the General Surgeon, other than the stomach and the abdomen however, the human beings should never be regarded merely as a collection of organs but as a complete entity and multiplicity of different functions. There are various illness or injuries which affect whole individual and consequently require the expert care of more than one specialist, for this reason the traditional division of medicine into different specialists. can be questioned and it is possible that another system may evolve. Sports medicine is not a medical specialty in the true sense of word, instead sports medicine concerns all those medical problems that may affect the athletes professional and amateur. As a result, sports medicine is involved to a greater or lesser degree with all the different medical specialty.